### Archive

Archive for October, 2010

## Fluffy is gone

We are sad to inform you that Fluffy, the world’s longest snake living in captivity, has died. 18-years-old and weighing 300-pounds Fluffy held the title of longest snake by Guinness World Records and was a hit attraction at Columbus Zoo.

Categories: python Tags: ,

## Levenshtein distance

The Levenshtein distance (or edit distance) between two strings is the minimal number of “edit operations” required to change one string into the other. The two strings can have different lengths. There are three kinds of “edit operations”: deletion, insertion, or alteration of a character in either string.

Example: the Levenshtein distance of “ag-tcc” and “cgctca” is 3.

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def LD(s,t):
s = ' ' + s
t = ' ' + t
d = {}
S = len(s)
T = len(t)
for i in range(S):
d[i, 0] = i
for j in range (T):
d[0, j] = j
for j in range(1,T):
for i in range(1,S):
if s[i] == t[j]:
d[i, j] = d[i-1, j-1]
else:
d[i, j] = min(d[i-1, j] + 1, d[i, j-1] + 1, d[i-1, j-1] + 1)
return d[S-1, T-1]

a = 'ag-tcc'
b = 'cgctca'

print LD(a, b)   # 3
```

The implementation is from here.

Categories: python Tags: ,

## Hamming distance

The Hamming distance is defined between two strings of equal length. It measures the number of positions with mismatching characters.

Example: the Hamming distance between “toned” and “roses” is 3.

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def hamming_distance(s1, s2):
assert len(s1) == len(s2)
return sum(ch1 != ch2 for ch1, ch2 in zip(s1, s2))

if __name__=="__main__":
a = 'toned'
b = 'roses'
print hamming_distance(a, b)   # 3
```

If you need the number of matching character positions:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def similarity(s1, s2):
assert len(s1) == len(s2)
return sum(ch1 == ch2 for ch1, ch2 in zip(s1, s2))

if __name__=="__main__":
a = 'toned'
b = 'roses'
print similarity(a, b)    # 2
```

Actually this is equal to `len(s1) - hamming_distance(s1, s2)`. Remember, `len(s1) == len(s2)`.

More info on `zip()` here.

Categories: python Tags: , , ,

## Permutations of a list

Update (20120321): The methods presented here can generate all the permutations. However, the permutations are not ordered lexicographically. If you need the permutations in lexicographical order, refer to this post.

Problem

You need all the permutations of a list.

Solution

With generators:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def perms01(li):
if len(li)         yield li
else:
for perm in perms01(li[1:]):
for i in range(len(perm)+1):
yield perm[:i] + li[0:1] + perm[i:]

for p in perms01(['a','b','c']):
print p
```

Output:

```['a', 'b', 'c']
['b', 'a', 'c']
['b', 'c', 'a']
['a', 'c', 'b']
['c', 'a', 'b']
['c', 'b', 'a']```

This tip is from here.

Without generators:

```def perms02(l):
sz = len(l)
if sz         return [l]
return [p[:i]+[l]+p[i:] for i in xrange(sz) for p in perms02(l[1:])]

for p in perms02(['a','b','c']):
print p
```

Output:

```['a', 'b', 'c']
['a', 'c', 'b']
['b', 'a', 'c']
['c', 'a', 'b']
['b', 'c', 'a']
['c', 'b', 'a']```

This tip is from here.

The two outputs contain the same elements in a different order.

Notes

If `S` is a finite set of `n` elements, then there are `n!` permutations of `S`. For instance, if we have 4 letters (say a, b, c, and d), then we can arrange them in `4! = 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 24` different ways.

Categories: python Tags: ,

## Generators

Generators are a simple and powerful tool for creating iterators. They are written like regular functions but use the `yield` statement whenever they want to return data. Each time `next()` is called, the generator resumes where it left-off (it remembers all the data values and which statement was last executed).”

Let’s rewrite our Fibonacci function using generators. In the previous approach, we specified how many Fibonacci numbers we want to get. The function calculated all of them and returned a list containing all the elements. With generators, we can calculate the numbers one by one. The new function will calculate a number, return it, and suspend its execution. When we call it again, it will resume where it left off and it runs until it computes another number, etc.

First let’s see a Fibonacci function that calculates the numbers in an infinite loop:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def fib():
a, b = 0, 1
while True:
print a    # the current number is here
a, b = b, a+b

fib()
```

In order to rewrite it in the form of a generator, we need to locate the part where the current value is calculated. This is the line with `print a`. We only need to replace this with `yield a`. It means that the function will return this value and suspend its execution until called again.

So, with generators it will look like this:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

def fib():
a, b = 0, 1
while True:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

f = fib()
for i in range(10):    # print the first ten Fibonacci numbers
print f.next(),    # 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
```

It is also possible to get a slice from the values of a generator. For instance, we want the 5th, 6th, and 7th Fibonacci numbers:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

from itertools import islice

def fib():
a, b = 0, 1
while True:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

for i in islice(fib(), 5, 8):
print i    # 5 8 13
```

More info on islice is here. For this post I used tips from here.

Update (20110406)

Here is a presentation in PDF entitled “Generator Tricks For Systems Programmers” by David Beazley (presented at PyCon 2008). (Reddit thread is here.)

Categories: python

## PyCon 2010, EuroPython 2010

PyCon is the largest annual gathering for the community using and developing the open-source Python programming language. Several videos are available too.

EuroPython is the European Python conference. It is aimed at everyone in the Python community, of all skill levels, both users and programmers. A lucky blogger was there, read his impressions here.

Update (20110509)

PyCon Video Archive

“This is a complete list of all recorded PyCon talks since 2009 with direct links to the video download. The official archive can be found at pycon.blip.tv.”

Categories: python

## The News Television Project (HírTV)

In this post I describe how to watch news on a Hungarian site. Although the video that we want to play is in Hungarian, you might get some ideas that you can use in a different project.

Project description

Currently I live abroad and sometimes I want to watch news in my mother tongue. So, the Hungarian News Television (HírTV) collects its news programs at http://www.hirtv.hu/view/videoview/hirado . Here, a video has the following URL: http://www.hirtv.net/filmek/hirado21/hiradoYYYYMMDD.wmv , where `YYYYMMDD` is the date (for instance http://www.hirtv.net/filmek/hirado21/hirado20101018.wmv). Instead of starting a web browser, visiting this page and clicking on a link, I want to launch the news video with a Python script.

Difficulty

When the script is executed, it may be possible that the news of the current day is not yet uploaded. So we need to verify if the URL exists. However, if we want to get a WMV file that doesn’t exist, the web server of HirTv will return an HTML page instead of indicating that the given URL is missing. So we will have to verify the Content-Type of the URLs. If it’s `text/html` => error, if it’s `video/x-ms-wmv` => OK.

Solution

```#!/usr/bin/env python

import datetime
import urllib
import os

WMV  = 'video/x-ms-wmv'

ext = '.wmv'

def get_content_type(url):
d = urllib.urlopen(url)
return d.info()['Content-Type']

def date_to_str(d):
return "%d%02d%02d" % d

def prettify(d):
return "%d-%02d-%02d" % d

def play_video(video_url):
print "> " + video_url
command = 'mplayer %s 1>/dev/null 2>&1' % video_url
#command = 'vlc %s 1>/dev/null 2>&1' % video_url    # if you prefer VLC
os.system(command)

today = datetime.date.today().timetuple()[:3]
video_today = base + date_to_str(today) + ext
if get_content_type(video_today) == WMV:
play_video(video_today)
else:
yesterday = (datetime.date.today() - datetime.timedelta(days = 1)).timetuple()[:3]
video_yesterday = base + date_to_str(yesterday) + ext

print "The video for today (%s) is not available." % prettify(today)
val = raw_input( "Do you want to watch the video of yesterday (%s) [y/n]? " % prettify(yesterday) )
if val == "y":
if get_content_type(video_yesterday) == WMV:
play_video(video_yesterday)
else:
print "Sorry. The video of yesterday (%s) is not available either." % prettify(yesterday)
```

First we determine the today’s date and using this information we create a URL for the video file. If it really exists (i.e. the Content-Type is correct), then we play it calling mplayer. If the Content-Type is incorrect, then the video of today was not yet uploaded. In this case we offer the user to play the video of yesterday.

Update (20101107): A bug in `date_to_str()` and `prettify()` was corrected. Months and days must be padded with `0`s, i.e. `6` must become `06` for instance. VLC support is also added, it’s put in comment.

Categories: python Tags: , , , , ,

## Get URL info (file size, Content-Type, etc.)

Problem

You have a URL and you want to get some info about it. For instance, you want to figure out the content type (text/html, image/jpeg, etc.) of the URL, or the file size without actually downloading the given page.

Solution

Let’s see an example with an image. Consider the URL http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/s0094539/remarkable_forest.preview.jpg .

```#!/usr/bin/env python

import urllib

def get_url_info(url):
d = urllib.urlopen(url)
return d.info()

url = 'http://'+'www'+'.geos.ed.ac.uk'+'/homes/s0094539/remarkable_forest.preview.jpg'
print get_url_info(url)
```

Output:
``` Date: Mon, 18 Oct 2010 18:58:07 GMT Server: Apache/2.0.63 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.0.63 OpenSSL/0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 DAV/2 mod_fastcgi/2.4.6 X-Powered-By: Zope (www.zope.org), Python (www.python.org) Last-Modified: Thu, 08 Nov 2007 09:56:19 GMT Content-Length: 103984 Accept-Ranges: bytes Connection: close Content-Type: image/jpeg ```

That is, the size of the image is 103,984 bytes and its content type is indeed image/jpeg.

In the code `d.info()` is a dictionary, so the extraction of a specific field is very easy:

```#!/usr/bin/env python

import urllib

def get_content_type(url):
d = urllib.urlopen(url)
return d.info()['Content-Type']

url = 'http://'+'www'+'.geos.ed.ac.uk'+'/homes/s0094539/remarkable_forest.preview.jpg'
print get_content_type(url)    # image/jpeg
```

This post is based on this thread.

Update (20121202)

With requests:

```>>> import requests
>>> from pprint import pprint
>>> url = 'http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/s0094539/remarkable_forest.preview.jpg'
{'accept-ranges': 'none',
'connection': 'close',
'content-length': '103984',
'content-type': 'image/jpeg',
'date': 'Sun, 02 Dec 2012 21:05:57 GMT',
'etag': 'ts94515779.19',
'last-modified': 'Thu, 08 Nov 2007 09:56:19 GMT',
'server': 'Apache/2.0.63 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.0.63 OpenSSL/0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 DAV/2 mod_fastcgi/2.4.6',
'x-powered-by': 'Zope (www.zope.org), Python (www.python.org)'}
```
Categories: python

## check if URL exists

Problem

Solution

Update (20120124): There was something wrong with my previous solution, it didn’t work correctly. Here is my revised version.

```import httplib
import urlparse

def get_server_status_code(url):
"""
return the server's status code.
"""
# http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1140661
host, path = urlparse.urlparse(url)[1:3]    # elems  and 
try:
conn = httplib.HTTPConnection(host)
return conn.getresponse().status
except StandardError:
return None

def check_url(url):
"""
We only check the URL header.
"""
good_codes = [httplib.OK, httplib.FOUND, httplib.MOVED_PERMANENTLY]
return get_server_status_code(url) in good_codes
```

Tests:

```assert check_url('http://www.google.com')    # exists
assert not check_url('http://simile.mit.edu/crowbar/nothing_here.html')    # doesn't exist
```

We only get the header of a given URL and we check the response code of the web server.

Update (20121202)

With requests:

```>>> import requests
>>>
>>> url = 'http://hup.hu'
>>> r.status_code
200    # requests.codes.OK
>>> r.status_code
302    # requests.codes.FOUND
>>> url = 'http://simile.mit.edu/crowbar/nothing_here.html'
>>> r.status_code
404    # requests.codes.NOT_FOUND
```
Categories: python Tags: , ,

## date today

Let’s see how to get today’s date in the format `yyyymmdd`, i.e. {year}{month}{day}. This format has an advantage. If you have several dates like this and you sort them lexicographically, then you get them in chronological order. I often use this format when creating subdirectories in the file system. Most file managers sort them automatically, so I can see them in order.

```#!/usr/bin/env python

import datetime

def date_to_str(d):
return ''.join(str(i) for i in d)

today = datetime.date.today().timetuple()[:3]

print today                 # (2010, 10, 17)
print date_to_str(today)    # 20101017
```

Here `today` is a tuple with three elements. The function `date_to_str()` joins the elements and returns a string. If you use the separator ‘`-`‘, i.e. `'-'.join(...)`, then you get the following output: `2010-10-17`.

Good to know

The form year before month before day is standard in Asian countries, Hungary, Sweden and the US armed forces.

Categories: python Tags: ,