A namedtuple can be used as a simple class where you want to group together some attributes, you want to name them, and you don’t need any methods. As its name suggests, it’s a tuple, but you can assign names to the attribues.
from collections import namedtuple Point = namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y']) # name of the "struct" and its attributes # Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x y') # it would also work, and it means the same # the 2nd parameter can be a single space-delimited string def main(): p = Point(x=1, y=4) print(p) # Point(x=1, y=4) p = Point(1, 4) print(p) # Point(x=1, y=4) print(p.x) # 1 print(p) # 1 print(p == (1, 4)) # True
Have you aver written something like this?
>>> li = ["one", "two", "three", "four"] >>> li ['one', 'two', 'three', 'four']
When I type in all those quotation marks and commas, I always feel sorry for my finger joints. Is there an easier way? Yes, there is:
>>> li = "one two three four".split() >>> li ['one', 'two', 'three', 'four']
You have a text and you want to remove punctuations from it. Example:
in: "Hello! It is time to remove punctuations. It is easy, you will see." out: "Hello It is time to remove punctuations It is easy you will see"
Let’s see a Python 3 solution:
>>> import string >>> tr = str.maketrans("", "", string.punctuation) >>> s = "Hello! It is time to remove punctuations. It is easy, you will see." >>> s.translate(tr) 'Hello Its time to remove punctuations Its easy youll see'
Today I ran into a strange problem. Take this code:
s = input("text> ") print(len(s))
If the input is very long, then it is truncated to 4096 characters (I tried it under Linux). The same happens when you do “
cat | wc” and paste in a long string. What???
It turns out that there’s a 4k kernel line length limit on terminal input (link). But how to overcome this problem?
0) Well, probably the best way is not to insert such a long string in the terminal. Pass it through a pipe (“
cat long.txt | wc” does work) or read it from a file.
But, if you really want to paste in a long string, here is what you can do:
1) With the command “
stty -icanon” you can disable the canonical mode. Paste in the string, and then I think it’s a good idea to enable the canonical mode again with “
stty icanon” (link).
2) Under Python I found a simple way. Just “
import readline” and it solved the issue for me. I tried it with a 11,000 characters long string and it worked.
Thanks to #python on IRC for helping to solve this issue.
Unipath is a very nice 3rd-party library for an object-oriented approach to Python file/directory operations. Just look at this sane API:
>>> from unipath import Path >>> p = Path("/usr/lib/python2.5/gopherlib.py") >>> p.parent Path("/usr/lib/python2.5") >>> p.name Path("gopherlib.py") >>> p.ext '.py' >>> p.stem Path('gopherlib') >>> q = Path(p.parent, p.stem + p.ext) >>> q Path('/usr/lib/python2.5/gopherlib.py') >>> q == p True
However, a very similar module landed in Python 3 called pathlib. It is almost the same as unipath but since it’s in the standard library, I think I’ll switch to it. It means one less external dependency, which is always a good thing.
Let’s see what it looks like:
>>> from pathlib import Path >>> p = Path("/usr/lib/python2.5/gopherlib.py") >>> p.parent PosixPath('/usr/lib/python2.5') >>> p.name 'gopherlib.py' >>> p.suffix # !!! called suffix, not ext !!! '.py' >>> p.stem 'gopherlib' >>> q = Path(p.parent, p.stem + p.suffix) >>> q PosixPath('/usr/lib/python2.5/gopherlib.py') >>> q == p True >>>
One important difference though. Unipath’s Path is a subclass of str, thus whenever a function needs a string, you can pass a Path object. However, it’s not true for pathlib’s PosixPath. It means that if you need the string representation of a PosixPath, you need to convert it manually.
>>> import os >>> from pathlib import Path >>> p = Path("/usr/lib/python2.5/gopherlib.py") >>> os.path.exists(p) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "/usr/lib/python3.5/genericpath.py", line 19, in exists os.stat(path) TypeError: argument should be string, bytes or integer, not PosixPath >>> os.path.exists(str(p)) # here False >>>
Some other features
>>> from pathlib import Path >>> Path.home() PosixPath('/home/jabba') # Were you also fed up with os.path.expanduser('~') ? >>> p = Path('/tmp/na.txt') >>> p.chmod(0o644) >>> p.exists() True >>> p.is_file() True >>> p.is_dir() False >>> >>> p = Path('/tmp/ehh.txt') >>> p.exists() False >>> p.touch() # At last! We have `touch` in the stdlib! >>> p.exists() True
Painless read from / write to file
>>> p = Path('my_text_file') >>> p.write_text('Text file contents') # newline is NOT added automatically 18 >>> p.read_text() 'Text file contents'
More details in the official docs.
You want to validate an IP address. However, it can be either IPv4 or IPv6.
Python 3 has a built-in module for this: ipaddress. Example:
>>> ipaddress.ip_address('192.168.0.1') IPv4Address('192.168.0.1') >>> ipaddress.ip_address('2001:db8::') IPv6Address('2001:db8::')
If the IP is invalid, you get a
I have several projects on GitHub (link) but some of them are either abandoned or outdated. So I want to review and update all of them.
I started this process with Bash-Utils. The Python 2 codebase was moved entirely to Python 3. The old Python 2 source is tagged and available under the “release” link, but I won’t touch that anymore. Only the current version (Python 3) will be updated. The README file is converted to Markdown, and new scripts are also documented.
Today I added a script called “rep.py” that allows you to execute a bash command several times. Example:
$ rep 3 echo hello hello hello hello
It will execute “echo hello” three times.